Seems to me that many schools and districts are asking questions about assessment in mathematics. So, I thought I would share a few quotes that might get you to think and reflect on your views about what it means to assess, why there might be a focus on assessment, and what our goals and ideals might look like. I want you to take a look at the following quotes. Pick 1 or 2 that stands out to you:
A few things to reflect on as you think about the quotes above:
Which quotes caught your eye? Did you pick one(s) that confirm things you already believe or perhaps ones that you hadn’t spent much time thinking about before?
Instead of talking in generalities about topics like assessment, maybe we need to start thinking about better questions to ask, or thinking deeper about what is mathematically important, or understanding how mathematics develops!
Please pick a quote that stands out for you and share your thoughts about it.
Many grade 3 teachers in my district, after taking part in some professional development recently (provided by @teatherboard), have tried the same task relating to area. I’d like to share the task with you and discuss some generalities we can consider for any topic in any grade.
As an introductory activity to area, students were provided with two images and asked which of the two shapes had the largest area.
A variety of tools and manipulatives were handy, as always, for students to use to help them make sense of the problem.
Given very little direction and lots of time to think about how to solve this problem, we saw a wide range of student thinking. Take a look at a few:
Some students used circles to help them find area. What does this say about what they understand? What issues do you see with this approach though?
Some students used shapes to cover the outline of each shape (perimeter). Will they be able to find the shape with the greater area? Is this strategy always / sometimes / never going to work? What does this strategy say about what they understand?
Some students used identical shapes to cover the inside of each figure.
And some students used different shapes to cover the figures.
Notice that example 9 here includes different units in both figures, but has reorganized them underneath to show the difference (can you tell which line represents which figure?).
Building Meaningful Conversations
Each of the samples above show the thinking, reasoning and understanding that the students brought to our math class. They were given a very difficult task and were asked to use their reasoning skills to find an answer and prove it. In the end, students were split between which figure had the greater area (some believing they were equal, many believing that one of the two was larger). In the end, students had very different numerical answers as to how much larger or smaller the figures were from each other. These discrepancies set the stage for a powerful learning opportunity!
For example, asking questions that get at the big ideas of measurement are now possible because of this problem:
“How is it possible some of us believe the left figure has a larger area and some of us believe that the right figure is larger?”
“Has example 8 (scroll up to take a closer look) proven that they both have the same area?”
“Why did example 9 use two pictures? It looks like many of the cuisenaire rods are missing in the second picture? What did you think they did here?”
In the end, the conversations should bring about important information for us to understand:
We need comparable units if we are to compare 2 or more figures together. This could mean using same-sized units (like examples 1, 4, 5 & 6 above), or corresponding units (like example 8 above), or units that can be reorganized and appropriately compared (like example 9).
If we want to determine the area numerically, we need to use the same-sized piece exclusively.
The smaller the unit we use, the more of them we will need to use.
It is difficult to find the exact area of figures with rounded parts using the tools we have. So, our measurements are not precise.
Some generalizations we can make here to help us with any topic in any grade
When our students are being introduced to a new topic, it is always beneficial to start with their ideas first. This way we can see the ideas they come to us with and engage in rich discussions during the lesson close that helps our students build understanding together. It is here in the discussions that we can bridge the thinking our students currently have with the thinking needed to understand the concepts you want them to leave with. In the example above, the students entered this year with many experiences using non-standard measurements, and this year, most of their experiences will be using standard measurements. However, instead of starting to teach this year’s standards, we need to help our students make some connections, and see the need to learn something new. Considering what the first few days look like in any unit is essential to make sure our students are adequately prepared to learn something new! (More on this here: What does day one look like?)
To me, this is what formative assessment should look like in mathematics! Setting up experiences that will challenge our students, listening and observing our students as they work and think… all to build conversations that will help our students make sense of the “big ideas” or key understandings we will need to learn in the upcoming lessons. When we view formative assessment as a way to learn more about our students’ thinking, and as a way to bridge their thinking with where we are going, we tend to see our students through an asset lens (what they DO understand) instead of their through the deficit lens (i.e., gaps in understanding… “they can’t”…, “didn’t they learn this last year…?). When we see our students through an asset lens, we tend to believe they are capable, and our students see themselves and the subject in a much more positive light!
Let’s take a closer look at the features of this lesson:
Little to no instruction was given – we wanted to learn about our students’ thinking, not see if they can follow directions
The problem was open enough to have multiple possible strategies and offer multiple possible entry points (low floor – high ceiling)
Asking students to prove something opens up many possibilities for rich discussions
Students needed to begin by using their reasoning skills, not procedural knowledge…
Coming up with a response involved students doing and thinking… but the real learning happened afterward – during the consolidation phase
How often do you give tasks hoping students will solve it a specific way? And how often you give tasks that allow your students to show you their current thinking? Which of these approaches do you value?
What do your students expect math class to be like on the first few days of a new topic/concept? Do they expect marks and quizzes? Or explanations, notes and lessons? Or problems where students think and share, and eventually come to understand the mathematics deeply through rich discussions? Is there a disconnect between what you believe is best, and what your students expect?
I’ve painted the picture here of formative assessment as a way to help us learn about how our students think – and not about gathering marks, grouping students, filling gaps. What does formative assessment look like in your classroom? Are there expectations put on you from others as to what formative assessment should look like? How might the ideas here agree with or challenge your beliefs or the expectations put upon you?
Time is always a concern. Is there value in building/constructing the learning together as a class, or is covering the curriculum standards good enough? How might these two differ? How would you like your students to experience mathematics?
As always, I’d love to hear your thoughts. Leave a reply here on Twitter (@MarkChubb3)
A common trend in education is to give students a diagnostic in order for us to know where to start. While I agree we should be starting where our students are, I think this can look very different in each classroom. Does starting where our students are mean we give a test to determine ability levels, then program based on these differences? Personally, I don’t think so.
Giving out a test or quiz at the beginning of instruction isn’t the ideal way of learning about our students. Seeing the product of someone’s thinking often isn’t helpful in seeing HOW that child thinks (Read, What does “assessment drive instruction mean to you” for more on this). Instead, I offer an alternative- starting with a diagnostic task! Here is an example of a diagnostic task given this week:
This lesson is broken down into 4 parts. Below are summaries of each:
Part 1 – Tell 1 or 2 interesting things about your shape
Start off in groups of 4. One student picks up a shape and says something (or 2) interesting about that shape.
Here you will notice how students think about shapes. Will they describe the shape as “looking like a mountain” or “it’s an hourglass” (visualization is level 1 on Van Hiele’s levels of Geometric thought)… or will they describe attributes of that shape (this is level 2 according to Van Hiele)?
As the teacher, we listen to the things our students talk about so we will know how to organize the conversation later.
Part 2 – Pick 2 shapes. Tell something similar or different about the 2 shapes.
Students randomly pick 2 shapes and either tell the group one thing similar or different about the two shapes. Each person offers their thoughts before 2 new shapes are picked.
Students who might have offered level 1 comments a minute ago will now need to consider thinking about attributes. Again, as the teacher, we listen for the attributes our students understand (i.e., number of sides, right angles, symmetry, number of vertices, number of pairs of parallel sides, angles….), and which attributes our students might be informally describing (i.e., using phrases like “corners”, or using gestures when attempting to describe something they haven’t learned yet). See chart below for a better description of Van Hiele’s levels:
At this time, it is ideal to hold conversations with the whole group about any disagreements that might exist. For example, the pairs of shapes above created disagreements about number of sides and number of vertices. When we have disagreements, we need to bring these forward to the group so we can learn together.
Part 3 – Sorting using a “Target Shape”
Pick a “Target Shape”. Think about one of its attributes. Sort the rest of the shapes based on the target shape.
The 2 groups above sorted their shapes based on different attributes. Can you figure out what their thinking is? Were there any shapes that they might have disagreed upon?
Part 4 – Secret sort
Here, we want students to be able to think about shapes that share similar attributes (this can potentially lead our students into level 2 type thinking depending on our sort). I suggest we provide shapes already sorted for our students, but sorted in a way that no group had just sorted the shapes. Ideally, this sort is something both in your standards and something you believe your students are ready to think about (based on the observations so far in this lesson).
In this lesson, we have noticed how our students think. We could assess the level of Geometric thought they are currently using, or the attributes they are comfortable describing, or misconceptions that need to be addressed. But, this lesson isn’t just about us gathering information, it is also about our students being actively engaged in the learning process! We are intentionally helping our students make connections, reason and prove, learn/ revisit vocabulary, think deeper about specific attributes…
In the above example, we listened to our students and used our understanding of our standards and developmental research to know where to start our conversations. As Van de Walle explains the purpose of formative assessment, we need to make our formative more like a streaming video, not just a test at the beginning!
If its formative, it needs to be ongoing… part of instruction… based on our observations, conversations, and the things students create… This requires us to start with rich tasks that are open enough to allow everyone an entry point and for us to have a plan to move forward!
I’m reminded of Phil Daro’s quote:
For us to make these shifts, we need to consider our mindsets that also need to shift. Statements like the following stand in the way of allowing our students to be actively engaged in the learning process starting with where they currently are:
My students aren’t ready for…
I need to start with the basics…
My students have gaps in their…
They don’t know the vocabulary yet…
These thoughts are counterproductive and lead to the Pygmalion effect (teacher beliefs about ability become students’ self-fulfilling prophecies). When WE decide which students are ready for what tasks, I worry that we might be holding many of our students back!
If we want to know where to start our instruction, start where your students are in their understanding…with their own thoughts!!!!! When we listen and observe our students first, we will know how to push their thinking!